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是航空发动机领域的新企业,成立仅20年就超越罗·罗

2017-5-19 10:04| 发布者: admin| 查看: 736| 评论: 233

摘要: 发动机联盟有限责任公司(Engine Alliance, LLC),缩写“EA”。成立于1996年8月,至今也就20年多一点,生产的GP7200发动机最初是空客A380的备选动力,如今在A380上的装备比例已经超过60%,在这一领域中首次超越了作 ...

发动机联盟有限责任公司(Engine Alliance, LLC),缩写“EA”。成立于1996年8月,至今也就20年多一点,生产的GP7200发动机最初是空客A380的备选动力,如今在A380上的装备比例已经超过60%,在这一领域中首次超越了作为A380启动动力的罗·罗Trent900。

站在两个巨人肩膀上的新公司只为一个机型提供一种发动机

发动机联盟公司(EA)总部位于美国康涅狄格州的东哈特福德,是GE航空集团和普惠公司(P&W)各出资50%成立的合资公司。起初是为波音747-500/600X项目提供发动机,但最终飞机项目取消。

发动机联盟公司将产品进行优化,以两巨头的主力产品GE90和PW4000为基础,推出GP7200,为空客A380提供备选动力,以竞争罗·罗公司的Trent900。其型号代码“GP”即采用了通用电气和普惠的字头组合,足见两公司对这家合作企业寄予了厚望。


2004年GP7200首次试验,2006年开始装备A380。2017年2月28日,发动机联盟(EA)已向五家客户的125架A380交付了500台发动机。其中有阿联酋航空90架、法航10架、大韩航空10架、阿提哈德航空7架、卡塔尔航空8架。

航发三巨头在超大型客机的四发动力领域,竞争得难解难分

罗·罗的Trent900和EA的GP7200在技术上各有千秋,都源于各自成熟的上一代产品,在燃油经济性、可靠性、排放和静音水平等方面都达到一个前所未有的高度。

尽管EA的势头不错,但其最大单一客户阿联酋航空最近在采购下一批A380时,重新选择了罗·罗的Trent 900。尽管GP7200在燃油经济性方面略有优势,每架飞机一年节油数十万美元也不是一笔小钱,但阿联酋航空认为罗·罗愿意为后续的A380neo产品采用大量新技术,包括基于TrentXWB的发动机技术。而他们认为EA在新技术应用方面仅是“适度升级”而略显保守。

截止目前,在已交付的210架A380的发动机中,EA的GP7200和罗·罗的Trent900打成了60:40,后续A380还有317架订单,罗·罗Trent 900的占有率可能会逐渐上升,最终定会平分秋色。

发动机大战从未停止,竞争与合作从未如此复杂地交织在一起

上世纪六十年代开始,GE和普惠在F-15、F-14和F-16的动力方面展开了激烈的竞争,史称“发动机大战”。最终是一个三赢的局面:竞争双方和用户。

事实上在民用发动机领域,“发动机大战”就从未消停,而且其规模、时长、范围和激烈程度都远大于当年美国境内的GE与普惠之争。

就目前A380动力这一单一项目来说,表面上是美国的双巨头GE与普惠联手竞争罗·罗,在当年的军用发动机领域,这俩还是竞争对手。

但是上世纪六十年代,普惠在单通道中型客机领域却占据着绝大多数市场,其JT-8D发动机大量装备波音737-200、法国“快帆”和DC-9。产品也曾盛极一时。而之后GE与法国斯奈克玛又成立了合资企业CFMI公司,才逐渐从普惠手里夺走了最大的一块航发市场。

不甘心!为了对抗CFMI,普惠和罗·罗又联手,与德国MTU、意大利阿维奥、日本航空发动机公司成立了“国际航空发动机(IAE)”,推出V2500来竞争单通道中型机市场,目前已销售发动机超5000台,总飞行1亿小时,被评价为航空史上第三成功的喷气发动机。

结论很明显,与当年在军用领域的“发动机大战”一样,民用领域的竞争也一定是个多赢的局面:竞争双方或多方、客户和最终消费者都是受益者。


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