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中国002航母有望采用燃气轮轮机推进 达到美军水平

2017-7-2 19:00| 发布者: admin| 查看: 737| 评论: 242

摘要: 随着第一条国产航母001A的下水,接踵而来的消息是,第二条国产航母002即将在上海江南造船厂长兴岛三号大坞开始总装,而与山东号不同的是,002航母没有采用滑跃起飞方式,而采用了弹射方式。   关于002航母究竟采 ...
随着第一条国产航母001A的下水,接踵而来的消息是,第二条国产航母002即将在上海江南造船厂长兴岛三号大坞开始总装,而与山东号不同的是,002航母没有采用滑跃起飞方式,而采用了弹射方式。

  关于002航母究竟采用何种弹射方式,一直是各媒体嘉宾和专家争论的焦点,电磁弹射还是蒸汽弹射一直是军迷口中不息的话题。而002的排水量也将一举超过六万吨的001A,达到前所未有的八万吨,这也接近了美国福莱斯特级航母和其后继型小鹰级航母的排水量,这也是迄今为止常规动力航母的极限。

  而习以为常的是常规动力航母习惯采用蒸汽轮机动力,这不仅是因为蒸汽轮机动力的功率强大,还考虑到蒸弹需要大量蒸汽,而蒸汽轮机所配的锅炉可以产生大量蒸汽。实际上即使核动力航母,其所配属的二回路配装的也是蒸汽轮机的部分。同样耐人寻味的,山东号航母的母型11435型航母库兹涅佐夫号及其后来者瓦良格号(中国改装后成为中国第一条航母辽宁号)及三号舰滑跃和蒸弹并存的乌里扬诺夫斯克号均采用了四台KB-4蒸汽轮机,其单台功率达到51000马力,总功率超过20万马力,需要指出的是同为常规动力的小鹰级航空母舰其同样也采用了四台蒸汽轮机的主动轮,单台功率达到七万马力,总功率达到28万马力,虽然库兹涅佐夫级航母排水量比小鹰稍小,但功率上显然相比小鹰差强人意;所以同为采用KB-4蒸汽轮机的辽宁号航母和山东号航母只能说刚刚好,而广东号显然是不够的,所以有必要在国产化KB-4蒸汽轮机的基础上,发展其增大功率版,当然假设在蒸弹的情况下,动力也不是只有蒸汽轮机这一条路,燃蒸联合也是可以选择的道路,所谓燃蒸联合,就是利用燃气轮机的余热附带锅炉加热,产生蒸汽,这样也能为蒸汽弹射提供蒸汽,从目前合适的燃气轮机来看,七万马力左右的动力主要是RO110燃气轮机的功率对折版RO50,其功率接近50兆瓦,折算成马力达到7万4千马力,该燃机是中航发沈阳动力的一个方案,但最切实际的是最近试车的东方汽轮机厂的50兆瓦某型燃机。该燃机正在紧张测试中,有传言说,该燃机即可发电用,也可以考虑改进为船用。

  就50兆瓦燃机而言,四台即可满足八万吨排水量,甚至于十万吨航母的需要,即使在不采用蒸弹而采用电磁弹射的情况,发电量的冗余也是足够的,而且其也能保持32节的高速航行,产生足够的舰载机起飞甲板风,就常规动力航母来说,中国在动力上的布局也是深谋远虑,早在90年代初期,当时主抓海军的军委副主席刘华清,就布局051B采用蒸汽轮机动力,为当时即将停产的船用蒸汽轮机生产线保留了一线生机,之后随着台海局势的紧张,又先后引进了四条现代级956型驱逐舰,其所配备的蒸汽轮机KB-4也同样应用于11435型航母,这也为该型蒸汽轮机的引进生产及以后的辽宁号航母及国产航母的蒸汽动力打下了伏笔。

  而在船用燃气轮机方面,中国的船用燃机部门和航空动力部门,先后引进授权生产及基于航空发动机发展了多型燃机,这有赖于建国后多年的燃气轮机研制基础,也有赖于国家国力的逐年提高,当年的星星之火,如今已渐成燎原之势。(作者署名:浩汉防务)


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