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我国航空发动机封严涂层与叶片研究获进展

2017-11-5 07:59| 发布者: admin| 查看: 3366| 评论: 1420

摘要: 核心提示: 封严涂层广泛应用于航空发动机风扇、压气机和涡轮,起到保护转动部件,减小间隙和提高效率的作用。以一台典型的涡扇发动机为例,高压涡轮与机匣间隙每减少0.254mm,涡轮效率提高约1%;压气机的径向间隙每 ...

GH4169叶片高速刮擦中形成剪切唇的过程(a,b,c),典型剪切唇结构(d)和对摩封严涂层中形成的转移层(e)

封严涂层广泛应用于航空发动机风扇、压气机和涡轮,起到保护转动部件,减小间隙和提高效率的作用。以一台典型的涡扇发动机为例,高压涡轮与机匣间隙每减少0.254mm,涡轮效率提高约1%;压气机的径向间隙每增加0.076mm,单位耗油率增加约1%。由于应用工况的特殊性,高速(百米/秒)、高温(1000℃)和断续刮擦,封严涂层与叶片这一摩擦副的摩擦学行为缺乏系统研究,导致实际应用中出现叶片磨损、涂层材料粘附叶片等威胁发动机运行安全的问题;封严涂层的设计、制备和应用也缺乏必要的理论指导和数据支撑。

中国科学院金属研究所专用材料与器件研究部的空间热控器件与材料摩擦学课题组在国内率先开展这方面的研究,自主设计建造了国内首台模拟封严涂层与叶片极端工况下摩擦磨损行为的试验机,后期又陆续研发了升级版的二代、三代试验机。

近日,金属所研究员段德莉等研究发现,Al-hBN涂层向叶片的粘附转移与应用工况条件密切相关,低单次切入量和高线速度时粘附最严重。通过对叶尖上涂层粘附层与原始涂层的对比表征分析,发现高速刮擦时强烈的摩擦热导致涂层中金属相Al发生熔融,在刮擦作用下向叶尖粘附是材料转移的机理。进一步对CuAl-Nig涂层与GH4169叶片摩擦副的研究,复现了发动机实际服役中常见的叶片剪切唇现象,发现高线速度和低进给率时叶片磨损最为严重,剪切唇体积最大。通过对叶片剪切唇的组织演化表征研究,基于高速断续刮擦的特点,联系高速摩擦热在摩擦副双方的分配与传导,提出了剪切唇的形成机理。研究人员对各种单个涂层研究工作的总结分析中,认识到摩擦热在高速摩擦磨损时对材料摩擦学行为的影响。科研人员建立了高速刮擦中的一维热传导模型,发现对摩副材料的热物性能对接触区域的温升速率有重要影响,导致涂层粘附叶片或叶片磨损的摩擦学行为。


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